Human papillomavirus, type of papilloma

Papillomas and wartsare benign lesions of the skin. Their appearance is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

This growth spoils appearance and destroys self-confidence. After all, they often occur in the open: face, neck, décolleté. In addition, these growths are injured by clothing and become inflamed. But the most unpleasant thing is when papillomas and condylomas appear on the genitals. They can not only spoil intimate life, but also lead to the development of cancerous tumors.

The disease caused by the papilloma virus is called papillomatosis. This disease is common among sexually active people. According to some reports, 80% of adult women have its manifestations. 70% of them are sexually infected. In men, external signs of the disease are much rarer - 1% have warts on the genitals, 30-40% have an asymptomatic course of the disease.

There are two periods in a person's life when the risk of infection is very high. The first falls at the beginning of sexual life at the age of 17-25 years, and the second at the peak of new partnerships at the age of 35-40 years. Due to the peculiarities of the development of immunity, children and adolescents infected from their parents are especially susceptible to this virus.

Older and obese people are more prone to the appearance of papillomas. They have these neoplasms appearing in skin folds and on the face.

Not always a viral infection causes the appearance of papillomas. The causative agent lives in the cells of the skin and if a person's immunity is strong, then he manages to overcome this infection. But if the body's defenses fall, then warts or papillomas appear on the skin.

Many are interested in the difference between papillomas and condyloma. In fact, these are manifestations of different forms of the same virus.

what are warts like

wart- These are benign neoplasms caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. Some scientists believe that condylomas are more likely to turn into cancerous tumors. They are found in the genital area and the anus (anus), but can sometimes appear near the mouth. Warts often appear in the form of a rash consisting of many elements. They have an unpleasant property to combine and reach large sizes. On the mucous membranes of the genital organs, they grow in the form of a cock's comb.

The warts are red or dirty brown in color, but on the genitals they are lighter. To the touch, they are softer and more tender than papillomas. Structurally, they resemble many villi growing together at their base.

Warts are more contagious and tend to reappear after treatment. They come in three varieties: genital, flat and intraepithelial warts. This formation must be removed. At the same time, doctors register all cases of condylomatosis.

papilloma on human body

papilloma- These are benign neoplasms caused by less dangerous types of human papillomavirus, more often types 1, 2, 3, 4 and 10. The risk of developing an oncological tumor in this case is low, papillomas are more of a cosmetic defect than a serious problem. They are located in different parts of the skin: on the eyelids, in the mouth and on the lips, on the chest and neck, in the armpits. But they can also be on the genitals.

Papillomas are lighter than warts: pink, white, pearl or light brown. As a rule, they appear one by one, not merging with each other. Its height rarely exceeds 1 cm. The appearance of papillomas is also different - these are round and wavy formations on the stalk. They look like cauliflower and are hard to the touch.

Papillomas respond better to treatment and may go away on their own over time. This occurs in 20% of cases.

So, let's conclude. Papilloma is a less dangerous form of manifestationpapilloma viruspeople. But warts must be removed. But it is difficult to independently distinguish condyloma from papilloma, because each person has his own disease. Therefore, in any case, consult a doctor for advice.

Skin papilloma

Causes of papillomas

human papilloma virus in the body

Papilloma is a benign tumor that is round on a thin stalk, which is shaped like a papilla. But this is not the disease itself, but its consequences. Papillomas can be compared to fungi. Even though we see it on the surface, the mycelium has spread its web underground. That's what happens with papillomas, they're all exactly the same.

The cause of this infectious disease is the human papillomavirus (HPV). It gets into the skin and begins to multiply in its surface layer - the squamous epithelium. Viruses, like mycelium, quietly sit in the thickness of the skin. But when immunity drops, and a sufficient number of pathogens accumulates, it changes the nuclei of epithelial cells. And because of that, they began to produce "wrong" offspring. The mutated skin cells of the virus actively grow and cause the appearance of papillomas.

Mode of transmission and mode of transmission

  1. Through sexual contact.The thin mucous membranes of the genital organs are very susceptible to viruses. If your partner has papillomas on the genitals, then the chances of infection are almost 100%. Using condoms can reduce the risk. But if the growth is located in an unprotected place (for example, the perineum), then infection will occur in this case. It should be remembered that any kind of sexual contact and even kissing is dangerous with such a partner.
  2. From mother to child during childbirth.This occurs when a pregnant woman has warts on her internal or external genitals. During childbirth, the child ingests the virus and he develops papillomas on the larynx. This form of the disease is difficult to treat.
  3. Through household items. Especially often infection occurs through towels, washcloths, razors, epilators. In this way, children of sick parents become infected.
  4. Infection in public places.Baths, swimming pools, and locker rooms in gyms can be dangerous. Viruses left by sick people on wet surfaces will not die. It causes infection if the infection has come into contact with the injured skin. But this possibility is not great.
  5. Automatic infection. This means that one papilloma can cause a dozen more neoplasms to appear. Self-infection occurs during shaving or epilation, when rubbing with clothes.

Human papillomavirus, type of papilloma

Papilloma diagnosis in humans

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common on the planet. The causative agent of the disease itself is a double-stranded DNA with genetic information, surrounded by a protective protein shell. There are more than 100 types. Of these, 40 cause disease in humans. Depending on the type of pathogen, the disease has different manifestations: warts, pointed, flat or intradermal papillomas and cancer of the genital organs.

After infection, the virus penetrates the nucleus of skin cells and begins to multiply there. This continues for about 3-12 months. This period is called the incubation period: the virus is already in the body, but external manifestations are still not visible.

Then, if the immune system is weakened, microscopic papillae consisting of several cells appear on the surface of the skin. Gradually, they increase and can grow up to 10 centimeters. If the immune system is strong, then papillomatosis does not appear at all or self-healing occurs. It can occur in young people under the age of 25, after giving birth or when the chronic disease has receded.

There are several types of papilloma virus:

  1. Non-oncogenic papillomavirus (HPV 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 63).This group of viruses does not cause the rebirth of skin cells. HPV types 1, 2, 4 and 63 often cause plantar and vulgar warts on the fingers. 3 and 10 cause flat warts, which were once considered a severe form of the disease. In fact, in this way the body tries to limit the spread of the virus. It appears to create a "sarcophagus" around the affected cells.
  2. Oncogenic papillomavirus with low oncogenic risk (HPV 6, 11, 42, 43, 44).This type of virus can eventually cause cancer, but the risk of developing such a disease is not very high. The squamous epithelial cells of the skin mutate only if the body is affected by carcinogenic factors: smoking, poor ecology, long-term use of hormonal contraceptives. Virus types 6 and 11 often cause the development of papillomas on the larynx and genital warts on the genitals.
  3. Oncogenic high-risk papillomavirus (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68)This viral infection often causes cancer, especially tumors of the cervix and larynx. They also cause neoplasia, a precancerous condition that manifests itself in changes in the structure of the uterine cells. The most dangerous in this group is HPV 16. This type of virus causes 50% of cancer cases. The 18th strain is also quite aggressive and often causes cervical swelling. Types 31 and 35 cause bowenoid papulosis in both men and women, which can lead to cancer of the penis and cervix. HPV types 51 and 56 are considered the least carcinogenic of the entire group, are easier to treat and can be removed from the body on their own.

Prognosis of the disease course

The prognosis is most unfavorable for type 18 virus. The disease can turn into cancer in 3-5 years, rapidly dissolving metastases in other organs. The tumor behaves aggressively and grows deep into the genital organs. The prognosis for type 16 infection is somewhat better, but the probability of tumor recurrence after treatment is high.

The prognosis for 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 58, 59 virus strains is not good. After 2-3 years after treatment, the disease manifests itself again and often becomes malignant. Cancer caused by this type of virus has a high mortality rate.

Such an unfavorable prognosis should alert a person if he finds small growths on the skin. It is important to consult a dermatologist or gynecologist who can accurately diagnose.
You can determine the type of human papillomavirus in a laboratory. To do this, take a smear or scraping from the area of \u200b\u200bgrowing skin. Then the viral DNA is determined in the laboratory. Types of papillomaviruses differ from each other in the structure of the part of the DNA chain. Help recognize the differencepolymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Symptoms and what do papillomas on the skin look like?

Papilloma on the face (photo)

papillomas in the eye area

These benign growths are often found in places where the skin is thinnest: near the eyes, around the nose and mouth. And in men on the chin in the shaving area. Growths can appear singly or in groups. In appearance, these are round growths similar to elongated papillae or cauliflower. Papillomas on the face are pink or brown in color.
First, small bumps, similar to pimples, appear on the surface of the skin. Gradually, it increases in size, grows and goes sideways. In diameter, papillomas reach up to 3 cm, the base is narrower, and the cap is round and tuberous.

If in women papillomas on the face mainly cause aesthetic problems, then in men it is more difficult. Growths are constantly injured during shaving, and this can lead to serious inflammation.

A person becomes infected through bodily contact with a sick person. This could be a hug, sexual contact, or, for example, through a shared towel. From the moment of infection to the appearance of papillomas on the face, it can take from 3 months to a year. Often, growths form on the skin after infection, severe stress, hypothermia, during pregnancy, when immunity drops.

Papillomas on the skin of the neck and body (photo)

papilloma on neck skin

Papillomas can appear anywhere on the body. Their location depends on gender, route of infection and type of HPV. Some types of viruses cause the appearance of warts mainly on the genitals, others on the body. In men, papillomas most commonly appear under the armpits, on the sides of the body and on the neck. In women, they occur on the breasts, under the breasts, on the nipples and in the armpits. But growth can also occur in other parts of the body: on the stomach, back, hips.

Papillomas on the body occur an average of 3 months after infection. But the virus can be lodged in the skin for several years, and manifests itself only after the collapse of the immune defenses.

Although papillomas on the skin of the neck and body are small, they can be mistaken for goosebumps. But gradually it grows and begins to bring a lot of discomfort: it clings to clothes, becomes inflamed, bleeds. In this case, you can not postpone a visit to the doctor.

Papilloma on the skin of the hands (photo)

papilloma on hand

Papillomas or vulgar warts often appear on the skin of the hands, which are caused by HPV types 3 and 10. They are transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person and often grow in places where there are small skin lesions, especially near the nails. . From infection to the appearance of warts, it takes about 2-6 months.

Papillomas on the hands have their own characteristics. They are flatter and do not sit on narrow legs, but directly on the skin. It is a small yellowish round formation with an unevenly keratinized surface. When touched, they are dense and rough. Neighboring elements often combine and can hit large surfaces. They are often located on the fingers, palms, and in children and on the knees. This is because babies crawl without clothes. In children, warts appear more often than in adults, because their skin is thinner and more susceptible to viruses.

Papilloma on the skin of the leg (photo)

papillomas on the skin of the feet

These, benign, growths on the soles of the feet are sometimes referred to as spines. They cause pain and burning while walking and can bring a lot of trouble to a person.

This disease is caused by human papillomavirus, or more precisely types 1, 2 and 4. 4-6 weeks after infection, fine and light bumps appear on the skin. Gradually, it increases in size and turns yellow. The surface becomes inhomogeneous, wavy or villous. Growth surrounds the protruding edge. In 30% of cases, papillomas on the soles disappear on their own. Self-healing mainly occurs in young people with strong immunity.
Sometimes plantar papillomas are confused with calluses that appear from prolonged squeezing of the foot with shoes. But the skin pattern remains on the callus, and the surface of the plantar wart consists of separate rounded elements.

Skin papilloma removal

laser papilloma removal

Papillomas are removed when they are unsightly, often injured, inflamed, or tend to turn into cancerous tumors. The main treatment for papillomas is their removal. But so that the warts do not bother you anymore, you need to undergo treatment:

  • Immunostimulatory drugs to strengthen the body's defenses.
  • Anti virus. They do not destroy the disease-causing agents, but only restrain their growth.
  • cytotoxic drugs. This drug causes the death of cells that form papillomas and warts. They are used when the rash is very common and the larynx and other internal organs are affected. These drugs can cause serious side effects.

But the only effective way is mechanical displacement. Modern medicine offers several ways to do this. Let's have a look at its features.

Papilloma removal surgery.

The operation is performed if the size of the papilloma is more than 1 cm or there is a suspicion of cancer cells in the formation. Often doctors cut and some healthy tissue. This is necessary so that results do not reappear. After removal, sutures are applied. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and takes 10-15 minutes. In this case, the patient does not experience pain.

In some cases, when the papilloma has a thin stalk, it is excised with surgical scissors. Then the vessel that gave it the blood is sealed (clogged) using an electrocoagulant. The area is treated with an antiseptic.

The disadvantage of this method: a rather large area of \u200b\u200bthe skin is removed. It takes a long time to heal, after surgery, scars and scars may appear.

Papilloma cauterization with liquid nitrogen.

papilloma cauterization with liquid nitrogen

Another name for this method is cryodestruction, i. e. crushing by cold. After the tumor (papiloma) is examined and the analysis shows that the tumor is benign and there are no changed cells in it, then you can proceed to surgery.

The doctor touches the papilloma with a cotton swab dipped in liquid nitrogen or a special nozzle. The temperature of nitrogen is -196 degrees. Exposure time is 5-20 seconds. The duration of cauterization depends on the size of the papilloma. Upon contact with liquid nitrogen, the water in the cells freezes, turns into ice, and the crystals destroy the papilloma.

The procedure is painless, but if the skin in this place is very sensitive, then it is anesthetized with an injection of novocaine into the sore spot. After treatment with nitrogen, the skin turns white, and gradually small bubbles filled with clear or pink liquid form in these places. The surrounding skin becomes red and swollen. At this stage, a person may experience discomfort - burning and tingling. But they gradually passed.

After the procedure, doctors recommend treating the skin with alcohol borate or a solution of potassium permanganate 2 times a day for a week. The ointment prevents infection, increases local immunity and reduces the risk of recurrence of papillomas.

The bubbles burst after 3-4 days and turn into a crust that protects the wound from damage. Gradually, the top layer disappears and healthy, pink skin remains underneath.

Removal with liquid nitrogen is recommended if the papilloma is located on the eyelids or small joints. Cryodestruction is also used to remove growths on the genitals.

The disadvantage of this method: if the doctor slightly freezes the diseased skin area, then the possibility of reappearance of papillomas. Freezing too much damages healthy tissue and causes scarring.

Laser removal of papillomas.

Before removal, an analysis is performed to exclude the presence of cancer cells. The site of the wart or papilloma is anesthetized with a lidocaine spray. The patient is asked to wear glasses.

A laser beam is directed at the neoplasm. One papilloma is affected for no more than a minute. The laser evaporates the water in the diseased cells, they shrink and turn into a crust. After half an hour, the surrounding skin turns red and swells, this is a normal reaction which will pass in a few days.

The crust will come off on its own in 5-7 days. In its place was a soft pink skin. Gradually, the color is even and there are no traces of papillomas at the site of the defect. It will take about 2 weeks for complete healing. During this period, you need to protect your skin from direct sunlight. Otherwise, a dark brown spot will appear at the site of the papilloma.

Cauterization of papillomas with laser avoids wound infection with microorganisms and seals blood vessels. Therefore, bleeding during and after surgery does not occur.

The crust that forms at the site of the papilloma is not recommended to be moistened and steamed for 3 days. Also, until complete healing, you can not use decorative cosmetics. This will prevent the appearance of scars. Treat the area with a potassium permanganate solution or a healing ointment with antibiotics, as recommended by your doctor.
With the help of a laser, papillomas on the arms, legs, face, and genitals are removed.

The disadvantage of this method: when removing large papillomas with a laser, scars may remain. Cryodestruction can lead to the fact that the papilloma will decrease in height, but will grow wider

Papilloma electrocoagulation.

This is the removal of a neoplasm using an electric current. A special electrocoagulation allows you to drain the narrow base of the papilloma or the entire wart. After that, the growth is easily separated from the skin. Bleeding from the wound does not occur because the vessels are sealed with the current.

Recovery will take 7-10 days. At this time, it is recommended to treat crusts with alcohol tincture of calendula 2 times a day. This will help avoid infection. After the crust falls off, a thin pink skin is found under it, which must be protected from injury and direct sunlight.

The main advantage of this method is that papillomas can be sent for examination to an oncologist.
Lack of method. If it is not enough to treat the area where the papilloma is located, then after a while it can grow again. Removal on sensitive areas (genitals) can be painful.

What is the best way to get rid of papillomas on the face and body?

Papilloma removal on the face

Papillomas on the face are a significant lack of appearance. Therefore, their removal is a very frequent procedure. The choice of method depends on the size of the build-up and its structure.

Removal of papillomas with liquid nitrogen is widespread in many clinics and beauty salons. After that, in most cases, no scarring occurs on the skin.

Laser removal is also very popular. Specialists accurately dose the laser power. This helps to "evaporate" the papilloma cells, but does not affect healthy tissue. This is considered the safest procedure, as the laser destroys the microbes that cause inflammation.

Electrocoagulation and traditional scalpel removal are more painful, and wounds after such operations take longer to heal.

If you prefer to be treated with natural remedies, then try to get rid of blemishes on the face with the help of wormwood, celandine or calendula juice. To do this, moisten the papilloma several times a day with the juice protruding from the stem of the plant.

Papilloma removal on the eyelid

The skin on the eyelids is very thin and often develops a growth rash. The removal of papillomas on the eyelids requires special care. Therefore, do not go to a beauty salon carelessly. It is better to entrust this work to a dermatologist.

Best results are obtained by removal with liquid nitrogen or a laser. This method allows you to make the procedure bloodless and avoid infection of the wound with bacteria.

Papilloma removal on the neck

Papillomas in this area are often injured by clothing or jewelry, becoming inflamed. To prevent infection, doctors recommend removing it.

The most common method is growth cauterization with a laser beam. The operation lasts no more than 1 minute for 1 growth. This method cannot completely protect against papilloma reappearance, but it does reduce the risk.

Electrocoagulation is also used. A thin instrument, through which a high-frequency current passes, heats the tissue and kills the virus. After such a procedure, the papilloma can be sent for research.

Radio wave operation also has a very good effect. A thin metal circle is applied to the skin around the papilloma. He created radio waves. Under their action, skin cells "dry" and their growth disappears. According to the principle of operation, this method is similar to laser removal.

Papilloma removal on the body

removal of papillomas on the body

It is necessary to remove papillomas on the body when there are a lot of them, they grow and merge with each other, become inflamed and cause discomfort. You can get rid of it with the help of traditional surgery. Large papillomas are excised with a scalpel. At the same time, healthy skin areas are also captured to remove all the cells affected by the virus. However, this method is used when there is a suspicion that cancer cells have appeared.

A more modern and gentle method is cryodestruction. The liquid nitrogen quickly freezes the papilloma and disappears. The remaining crust should be treated 2 times a day with calendula alcohol tincture and protected from water.

If possible, you can remove the papilloma with a laser or use an electrocoagulation.
After removal of the papilloma, the patient can go home immediately. But patients still need to undergo antiviral medication and treatments to strengthen the immune system.